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Ultrasonographic evaluation of thyroid lesions in south Gujarat area

Ekta Desai, Nipa Patidar, Mona Sastri, Avni Bhatt, Dhagash Patel, Mona Chitara, Nehal Diwanji.

Abstract
Background: Thyroid lesions are a global problem with incidence of thyroid in adults undergoing ultrasonography at 1067%. For thyroid lesion assessment and its management various methods are used like clinical examination, pathological fine needle aspiration cytology, biopsy examination, and radiological examinations like plain X-ray, ultrasonography, and CT Scan. Ultrasound is useful for evaluation of thyroid because it is accessible, non-invasive, no radiation hazards and relatively inexpensive. Ultrasound also helps in defining whether a lesion is benign or malignant.

Objectives: To evaluate role of ultrasound in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions and comparing it with pathological diagnosis and to differentiate benign from malignant masses on the basis of sonographic appearance.

Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out by Department of Radiodiagnosis over period of one year. Patients visiting to various departments with thyroid enlargement were included in the study after informed written consent. Information collected from each participant included detailed history, data of general and specific examination, and laboratory parameters. Radiological examinations like plain X-ray, ultrasonography and if required CT scan was done. Radiological findings were correlated with pathological findings.

Results: Out of total 50 number of participants 72% were female. 72% of patients had single nodular lesion, while 18% patients had multiple nodular lesions and 10% had diffuse lesion. 34% of participants showed calcification on ultrasonography. 30% patients had hypoechoic and 18% had hyperechoic lesions, while 12% had anechoic lesions. Halo sign was seen in 28% of patients, while comate trail artifact seen in 12% of patients. Sensitivity of radiological diagnosis in this study was 83%, specificity was 73%.


Conclusion: Ultrasonography helps in initial evaluation and diagnosis of thyroid lesions. Fine needle aspiration cytology remains the gold standard for diagnosing whether a lesion is benign or malignant. It also helps in differentiation of benign lesions from malignant one.

Key words: Thyroid lesions, Ultrasonography



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