Obstructive urolithiasis is the retention of urine subsequent to lodgment of calculi anywhere in the urinary conduct from up to urethral orifice. The disease results in heavy economic losses to the livestock industry as it is attributed the fifth most prevalent cause of death in feedlot. Obstructive urolithiasis is a serious, potentially fatal condition, most commonly causing symptoms in castrated male animals, but also occurring in breeding males. Many surgical approaches and techniques for the diagnosis and the treatment of the disease have been described with their relative merits and demerits in the literature.
calculi, obstruction, steer, urolithiasis