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Clinical profile of children with diarrhoea admitted in pediatric intensive care unit of Bal Chikitsalay, M.B. Hospital, RNT Medical College, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India

Anuj Dhyani, Priyanka Ameta, Jimikumar Baldevbhai Patel, Suresh Goyal.

Background: In India, diarrhoea is the third most important cause of under-five mortality after pneumonia and complications of prematurity. According to a study, 22% of rotavirus associated deaths worldwide were from India. Two most important consequences of diarrhoea in children are malnutrition and dehydration. Malnutrition and diarrhoea form a vicious cycle, as malnutrition increases risk and severity of diarrhoea. Impaired absorption, loss of nutrients, increased catabolism and improper feeding aggravate severity of malnutrition. Significant dehydration with abnormal electrolytes and acid base status occurs, which may be fatal. The study was done to know prevalence of malnutrition and diarrhoea along with various acid base disorders associated with it.
Methods: Children of age group 1 month to 60 months of age were enrolled in the study. Relevant investigations were carried out and recorded.
Results: A total of 164 children were enrolled, out of which 86 were males and 78 females. Maximum numbers of children were infants. Rotavirus alone was responsible for 42% of children with severe dehydration. Nutritional status of children with diarrhoea showed high prevalence of malnutrition in children with severe dehydration, as one third of children had mid upper arm circumference less than 11.5cm. Most common complication was uremia.
Conclusions: Rotavirus diarrhoea was a major cause of severe dehydration in children. Malnutrition was associated in majority of children.

Key words: Acidosis, Diarrhoea, Electrolytes, Malnutrition, PICU

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