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Assessment of the use of impregnated bed nets in prevent and control sand fly bites in endemic area with visceral leishmaniasis, Eastern Sudan-2013

Mustafa Mohammed Mustafa, Nagwa Suliman Ahammed, Ustaz Mohamed Awad Alkareem, Imad Eldin Elgack, Nazar Abdalla, Majida Elhady.

Abstract
Background: Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Sand flies, (members of the Phylum Arthropoda and belonging to the class Insecta) transmit leishmaniasis. Animals as reservoirs of infection include dogs, monkeys, and ponies. It was also found that other animals such as hyenas, and jackals could not be ruled out as potential reservoirs.
Methods: An epidemiological - cross sectional study conducted in Sudan, during the period 2011-2013, among the students in Gadaref university, aimed to determine the effectiveness of impregnated bed nets as control and protective measures for sand fly bites. The study included students coming from outside the study area, with no history of coetaneous Leishmaniasis. 155 students in first year were included in this study as study group (90) were male and (65) were female.
Results: The study revealed highly percentage regarding the effectiveness of bed nets in preventing insect access due to students answers with 92.1% male and 96.3% female, versus 7.9% and 3.7% with negative answers respectively. No infection by coetaneous or visceral Leishmaniasis were reported post intervention among study group while (11) cases where reported in control group.
Conclusions: The preventive measures such as impregnated bed nets are very effective in control of infection.

Key words: Bed nets, Impregnated, Leishmaniasis Gadaref University, Orientalis LST, Phlebotomus, Pyrethrin



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