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A study on the histopathological pattern of thyroid lesions in a tertiary care hospital

Elizabeth Joseph, Anju Varghese, Celine T.M., Anna Matthai, Usha Poothiode.

Background: Thyroid diseases are one of the most common endocrine disorders affecting the general population. They range from non-neoplastic to neoplastic lesions. The prevalence and pattern of these disorders depend on various factors including sex, age, ethnic and geographical patterns. The aim of the present study was to determine the pattern of thyroid lesions in thyroidectomy specimens received in the pathology department of MOSC Medical College Hospital, Kolenchery, Kerala, India.
Methods: It was a 6 year retrospective study (January 2010 to December 2015) of all thyroidectomy specimens received in the Pathology department. All the biopsy reports were reviewed and different lesions were categorized according to age and gender distribution.
Results: There were a total of 801 specimens, of which 716 were females and 85 were males. Maximum number of thyroid lesions were seen in the age group 41-50 yrs. Multinodular goiter was the most common non-neoplastic thyroid lesion (71.5%) followed by thyroiditis. There were 151 carcinomas (18.8%). Maximum numbers of carcinomas were seen in age group 31-40 (28.8%).The frequency of carcinomas among the total thyroid lesions was almost same for both males and females (18.82% and 18.85%). Papillary carcinoma was the most frequent malignancy, out of which half were of the micro papillary subtype.
Conclusions: Multinodular goiter was found to be the most common thyroid lesion in this study. The percentage of malignant thyroid tumors was high compared to other studies done in Kerala. Papillary carcinoma was the most common malignant neoplasm. The micropapillary variant comprised 50% of the papillary carcinoma.

Key words: Thyroidectomy specimens, Multi nodular goiter, Thyroiditis, Thyroid carcinoma, Papillary carcinoma

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