Objective: We intended to review studies investigating panic
provocation tests using placebo and active drugs in panic disorder
patients or in healthy controls.
Method: A manual and
computerized (MEDLINE) search was performed to examine
the English-language literature on panic provocation studies.
Results: Sodium lactate, cholecystokinin and carbon dioxide
challenge tests are the most frequently used tools. These
challenge tests generally seem sensitive, safe, and reliable.
Conclussions: The results of these tests may or may not prove
the efficacy of both novel compounds and drugs already
marketed for indications other than anxiety disorders. Panic
provocation studies may contribute to our understanding of
panic disorder, provocation tests, carbon dioxide, cholecystokinin, sodium lactate, placebo