Vitamin D is an essential factor not only for homeostasis of calcium and phosphorus, but also regulates hundreds of genes involved in cell differentiation and cell proliferation through nuclear vitamin D receptor of its active form, 1,25-dihydroksyvitamin D3. Besides its beneficial effects on bone health, vitamin D contributes to the prevention of various malignancies, autoimmune and allergic diseases, cardiovascular and infectious diseases as a result of their anti-inflammatory and immune modulatory properties and effects on cytokine levels. Low vitamin D levels are associated with so many diseases such as malignancies, autoimmune disease, diabetes, hypertension and infectious disease. Current knowledge about vitamin D and the effects of vitamin D on musculoskeletal system and the other systems are discussed in this review.
1,25(OH)2D, Vitamin D, Vitamin D receptor