In this article, we review the literature defining treatment-resistant depression and pharmacological strategies to manage these
difficult and challenging clinical cases. Augmentation strategies reviewed in this paper are limited and include the classic and
very well-established antidepressant-augmenters such as lithium and thyroid, in addition to the newer use of pindolol and
tryptophan. We also present possible clinical variables which may be complicating the choice, administration and monitoring
safely and effectively during switching and augmenting antidepressant drugs.
treatment-resistant depression, depression, pharmacotherapy, psychopharmacology, lithium, thyroid hormones, pindolol, tryptophan, serotonin, ECT