Background: Lead is the most common heavy metal toxin which induces oxidative stress by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Red blood cells and hepatocytes are more vulnerable to this oxidative stress to produce anemia and hepatotoxicity. Quantitative estimation of the effect of lead exposure on the oxidative stress, liver functions and hematological profile are evaluated in this study.
Methods: Seventy male healthy Sprague Dawley rats are randomly divided into two groups with thirty five rats in each group. Rats of lead intoxicated group are given weekly intraperitoneal injection of lead acetate 10 mg /kg body weight. After 6 weeks, intracardiac sampling is done. Blood of each sample is used to determine hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, red cell indices, serum MDA, serum ALT and serum AST levels.
Results: Lead intoxication of rats for 6 weeks reveals that serum MDA levels are increased to 7.8 ± 0.48 µmol/l (control = 3.2 ± 0.27µmol/l), ALT levels to 76.26 ± 5.88 IU/l (control = 44.7 ± 2.96) and AST levels to 258.06 ± 13.30 IU/l (control = 156.8 ± 5.04). Hematological parameters of lead intoxicated group reveals lowered levels of hemoglobin, RBC count, MCHC and MCH while MCV remains statistically unchanged; manifesting hypochromic normocytic anemia. Conclusion: Lead intoxication for 6 weeks induces oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity and hypochromic normocytic anemia.
Lead poisoning, erythrocyte indices, malondialdehyde, alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase