From the earliest description of schizophrenia, amotivational syndrome associated with severe functional impairment is recognised. These symptoms are found to be independent from other symptoms in longitudinal and cross-sectional assesments. The negative symptoms are named as primary or idiopathic if they are present at beginning of the disease or if it is specific to the disease. If they are due to positive symptoms, drug adverse effects or depression they are named as secondary negative symptoms. Treatment approach depends on whether negative symptoms are primary or secondary. Deficit syndrome is described by primary negative symptoms presenting at the beginning of disease, emerging spontaneously and staying stable during the disease course. Recent reports showed that deficit syndrome differ on disease course based on neurocognitive measures, functioning, and structural imaging. The role of negative symptoms in clinical diversity of schizophrenia was aimed to be evaluated in this paper by elobarating negative symptoms in various dimensions such as clinical features, biological measures, quality of life, and response to treatment.
Deficit syndrome, negative symptoms, neuropsychological functioning, neuroimaging