Sexually transmitted infections are a major public health problem. The French laboratories participated on voluntary basis in the RENAGO (Réseau National du Gonocoque) network and sent all of their collected strains to the National Reference Center for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Gonorrhoea, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae, remains one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs), causing cervicitis, urethritis, ano-rectitis, and conjunctivitis of the newborn. Over the last few years, the number of gonorrhoea cases has increased regularly in many European countries (Fenton, K. A., and C. M. Lowndes. 2004). Since the first report of tetracycline resistance in 1985, gonococci that are resistant to tetracycline have spread globally, coexisting chromosomally and plasmid-mediated resistanc isolates (Starnino, S., A. Neri, and P. Stefanelli. 2008.).
At present, there is no effective vaccine against N. gonorrhoeae. The control of gonococcal infections depends on in pursuing of our populations at risk, on public health measures to limit the spread of infection, and on early intervention to treat infected individuals. Any kind of methods have been used for molecular epidemiology studies of N. gonorrhoea. Some of these methods are based on growth requirements for specific nutrients, antibiotic susceptibility, differences in multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, and serological reactivity against surface antigens. Because the above approaches present several limitations, molecular typing methods have been developed with improved discrimination among gonococcal isolates. Of the currently available sequence-based methods, N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) is one of the most useful because it generates a simple numerical sequence type (ST) based on the combined sequences of two genes (por and tbpB). In addition, an internationally accessible web database allows strain comparison worldwide (Martin, I. M., S. Hoffmann, and C. A. Ison 2006).
Por, TbpB Genes, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE